Biomedical waste are produced from medical and dental setup. Proper biomedical waste management and their disposal is mandatory to ensure safety of healthcare personnel and general public as well. A dental hospital/ clinic is a complex multidisciplinary system which consumes lots of items and produces biomedical waste. Read more to know about categories of biomedical waste and their management.
Categories of biomedical waste and their management
Category 1 consists of – Human anatomical Human tissues, organs, body parts
- Incineration/deep burial is the method of disposal
- Colour code – Yellow
- Plastic bag is used as container to dispose
Category 2 consists of -Animal waste
- Animals tissues, organs body parts, carcasses bleeding parts, fluid blood and experimental animals used in research, waste generated by veterinary hospital colleges, discharges from hospitals and animals houses
- Disposal option is through – Incineration/deep burial
- Categorised to be disposed into Yellow Plastic bag
Category 3 consists of – Microbiology and biotechnology waste Laboratory cultures stocks, specimen of micro-organism live or attenuated vaccines, human and animal cell culture used in research and industrial laboratories, wastes from production of biological toxins dishes and devices used for transfer of cultures
- The treatment option is Local autoclaving microwaving incineration
- Yellow/red Plastic bag, disinfected container is the way to dispose such waste
Category 4 consists of – Waste sharps Needles, syringes, scalpels, blades, glass, etc. that may cause puncture and cuts this includes both used and unused sharps
- Disinfection/chemical treatment/autoclaving/ micro-waving and mutilation shredding are treatment / disposal option
- Blue/white translucent Plastic bag, puncture proof container is the colour code used and method to dispose respectively
Category 5 consists of – Discarded medicines and cytotoxic drugs, waste comprising of outdated contaminated and discarded medicines
- Incineration/destruction and disposal in secured landfills is the way to get rid of such waste
- Black Plastic bag is used to dispose
Category 6 consists of – Soiled biomedical waste items contaminated with blood and body fluids including cotton dressing, soiled plaster casts, linen bedding other material contaminated with blood Incineration/autoclaving/ micro-waving is the type of method used to dipose
- Yellow/red bag is used to dispose such waste
- Disinfected container, plastic bag used as well
Category 7 consists of – Soiled biomedical waste generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps such as tubing catheters, intravenous sets, etc.
- Treatment – Disinfection/chemical treatment/autoclaving/ micro-waving and mutilation shredding
- Blue/white translucent is the colour code
- Disinfected container, plastic bag is the type of container used
Category 8 consists of – Liquid biomedical waste generated from laboratory washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities
- Disinfection/chemical treatment is the disposal option
Category 9 consists of – Incineration ash
- Ash from incineration of any biomedical waste
- Disposal in municipal landfill
- Black Plastic bag is the colour code
Category 10 consists of – Chemical biomedical waste.
- Waste generated from chemicals used in the production of disinfection materials and insecticides, etc
- Chemical treatment and discharge into drains for liquid and secured landfill for solids
- Black Plastic bag is the colour code
Take Home Message
Its important and mandatory to follow disposal of waste according to the above guidelines to ensure safety of the community. Improper biomedical waste management can lead to various type of infections that can be harmful. It is the responsibility of the healthcare personnel to understand the guidelines and follow them with utmost care.
Article by Dr. Siri P. B.