What is Syndrome ?
A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms which are correlated with each other and often associated with a particular disease or disorder. It can also be described as a group of symptoms which consistently occur together, or a condition characterized by a set of associated symptoms.
Here is a quick insight into some of the syndromes that are associated with various parts of oral cavity.
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome – Erythema multiforme is classified Stevens-Johnson syndrome when the vesicles and bullae involve skin, mouth, eyes and genitals. Also related to drug reactions.
Von-Sallman – It is a hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis. Oral mucosal thickening with superficial gelatinous looking plaques on bulbar conjunctiva is the clinical manifestation.
Jadassohn-Lewandowsky Syndrome – Congenital gross thickening of finger and toe nails. Leukokeratosis is also noted. Oral leukokeratosis affects dorsum of tongue which becomes thickened and grayish white.
Dyskeratosis Congenital (Zinsser-Engman-Cole) – It is a rare X-linked disorder characterized leading to atrophic, leukoplakic oral mucosa. Tongue and cheek are adversely affected.
Greincspan’s Syndrome – There is a triad of lichen plannus, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. It may predispose to sqaumous cell carcinoma.
Cushing’s Syndrome – Here adrenal hyperactivity is seen. Patient may be hypertensive and hypoglycemic and show moon face. Gingiva, palate and buccal mucosa may be blotchy due to melanin granules.
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome – Oral pigmentation, multiple, focal, melanotic brown macules are concentrated on lips. Anterior tongue may be involved.
Albright’s Syndrome – replacement of spongy bone by a peculiar fibrous tissue. Radiographs will show radiopacity and radiolucency, some like compact bone other like cystic bone. Transformation to malignancy occurs.
Gardner’s – Osteomas of jaw and accompanying cysts are indictors.
Cowden’s Syndrome – Hamartomas involvement of many organs with a potential of neoplastic transformation. It is inherited as autosomal dominant character. Multiple cysts over lips and gingivae are seen.
Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome – Jaw cysts, facies, calcification, bifid ribs and skin lesions. Multiple pink to brown papules appear on face
Goltz-Gorlin – Patient will develop gingival and other mucosal papillomatous lesions. Lips and teeth develop defects. Associated features include poikiloderma, syndactly and adactyly can be noted.
Sturge-Weber – Orofacial and meningeal angiomatosis with secondary mental deficiency. There may be seizures, hemiplegia and mild to severe enlargement of gingiva.
Burning Mouth Syndrome – Painful, burning sensations localized in the tongue or affecting other areas of oral mucosa. The pain of burning tongue is rated similar to that of toothache. Tongue temperature is decreased.
Sjögren’s – It is an autoimmune disorder of exocrine glands which may be associated with neuropathy and lymphoproliferative disorder. Lacrimal and salivary glands are affected.
Nursing Bottle Syndrome – This occurs in babies on bottle feeding containing more of sugar. It results in multiple numbers of caries in many teeth.
Cracked Tooth Syndrome – Development of a crack in a restored or an unrestored tooth due to excessive occlusal forces is one of the main cause. There is sharp pain on biting. Pain is similar to that of trigeminal neuralgia. Radiographs are unable to show cracked tooth.
Article by Dr. Siri P.B.